Science refers to any field which expands the knowledge of the people of The Land, in regards to their understanding of any and all aspects of the world. While the other categories of work most closely associated with science are medicine and education, it is generally understood that the various branches of study collectively referred to as "science" make possible all advancements and developments which are of use to every field of endeavour. It is also assumed that in the centuries to come, still more branches of science will be created (or discovered).
The science of astronomy deals with the study of celestial objects such as the sun, moon, planets, and stars. Areas of study include how these objects moves both independently and in relation to one another. Such things have been of interest to Landians since the time of Connor and Brigid, when God first told of the existence of other worlds. These studies are also important for measuring the passage of time (for example, one rotation of the Land equals one day, one revolution of the moon around the Land equals one month, one revolution of the Land around the sun equals one year.) Unfortunately, all these objects are too far away to study in great detail using current Landian technology.
Biology is the study of life in all its forms, including plants and animals, as well as other biological "kingdoms." It is known that on Earth, biologists employ a complex classification system for all life forms, called the "Tree of Life," which divides life into different tiers. Traditionally the top-level tier has been "kingdom," followed by "phylum," "class," "order, "family," "genus," and "species" (the most specific level), though there may actually be tiers above kingdom. Species names are based on old languages, most commonly Latin, though this is merely for scientific purposes. In common speech, species may go by simpler names. While Landian biologists classify our world's species according to our own Tree of Life, they only use the common names, rather than scientific ones.
Biological classification is referred to as "taxonomy," though it is in itself not a science. Rather, it depends on other forms of biology to determine methods of classifying plants, animals, etc., by studying their physiology to determine how different species are like or unlike one another. Biological studies over the centuries have proven invaluable in helping physicians learn to treat diseases and injuries.
Unfortunately, there are potential branches of biology which have remained largely impossible to study, due to limitations of technology. It is known (through communications with spirits that there are aspects of biology which involve things too small to be seen with the eye, such as cells, and even smaller bodies within cells... there are in fact billions or even trillions of cells in complex life forms such as humans, but there are also life forms which consist of a single cell (microorganisms). Below even cellular bodies are genes, made up of proteins and nucleic acids, which determine the forms that life takes on a macroscopic level. However, details of such things are unknown to Landian biologists. (There are spell devices called scrying glasses which allow Sorreters to see inside bodies at extreme magnification, but these may only be used for certain applications of Magic, and not science. At the time the device was first created in 543, there was no specific rule against it, though most scientists wouldn't have known of the existence of these glasses, anyway. Even if they did know, it would have been taboo to use them for scientific purposes; and in 904, when the Prohibition of Off-world Technology was enacted, such devices fell under its purview. However, there has been some debate about this, considering that other spell devices, such as bubbles, have allowed the general public to do things that could not yet be done via Landian technology.)
Nevertheless, the concept of genetics was itself not learned from spirits, but rather theorized by Levitn, a scientist who lived around the turn of the first century (and who is best remembered as the uncle of Brist, who introduced religion to the Land). Levitn performed experiments involving rainbow qutn which led him to determine that there were ways of predicting physical traits- most notably color- were predictable from generation to generation. The work of geneticists like Levitn has led to greater efficiency in the breeding of various plants and animals. It is also essential in the work of some Sorreters to create mythical creatures; though "genetic engineering" is an application of magic more than of science, it is nevertheless something that scientists themselves might be capable of, centuries from now.
Another branch of biology is pharmacology, which involves the study of how drugs affect people or animals. This branch of study is closely tied with the work of apothecaries.
Often simply referred to as "map-makers," cartographers are required to be skilled at various disciplines. They must have a keen eye for detail, a firm understanding of mathematics, be skilled illustrators, among other things. Map-making (or cartography) has improved in various ways over the centuries since people first began exploring. The term 'cartographer' was not widely used prior to the founding of Ship in 360, but since then there have always been cartographers involved in sea-faring exploratory expeditions. There have also been three major expeditions for map-making purposes done by air: one from LY 850 to 853 (which charted Midds Land); one from 853 to 860 (which charted an as-yet unnamed landmass which is bordered by West Ocean, South Ocean, and the Great Sea); the last from 871 to 873 (which charted a landmass bordered by West Ocean, the Great Sea, and North Ocean). The latter landmass has been referred to as Far West since settlements began in 922. The first complete map of The Land was finished in 885, with the discovery of Second Ice, the year after the discovery of Rain Isle, via a sailing expedition. However, the maps we currently have are somewhat general, and there will be work for cartographers for centuries to come, as more detailed maps will be needed as people continue to explore the world on land.
Chemistry is the study of matter in its various states, and of the various elements which comprise all matter, and how different elements interact with each other. The practical applications of chemistry are too numerous to mention, and research into various elements and chemical compounds is considered one of the most valuable fields in science, with the expectation that as a greater understanding of the properties of matter is achieved, everyday life will be affected in incalculable ways. Many believe that the materials chemists will eventually learn about will lead to far greater conveniences than even magic can produce.
Engineering is the practical application of science and mathematics in any number of ways. It involves the design of architecture, vehicles, indoor plumbing, bridges, mills, various weapons, instruments (both musical and scientific), aqueducts, clocks, and any number of other things. New applications are continuously being found, and in fact even many applications of magic would be useless without being coupled with the mechanical expertise of engineers.
Invention, like engineering or medicine, is in itself a practical application of science and mathematics; however, many research scientists fail to acknowledge inventors as "true" scientists. And in fact, there are many inventors whose understanding of science is relatively rudimentary (there are many people, especially students, who may read about various scientific discoveries and consider them obvious, failing to grasp that the point of science is not to realize that something happens, but to figure out how and why it happens). On the other hand, many inventors do have a firm grounding in the sciences; most truly complex inventions would not be possible otherwise. And so, the term "inventor" may be used to cover a wide variety of individuals, employing a wide variety of methods. Many inventions are thought up quite by accident (though some would say the same is true of many scientific discoveries). The term "inventor" is so broad that it may be applied to people whose understanding of science and mathematics far surpasses that of many engineers or physicists, as well as to people whose understanding is far lesser than the average mechanic. Innovations which are called "inventions" may likewise be of great simplicity or great complexity. In any case, invention is accepted by most people as the underlying reason for any kind of research, and the practical means through which all of civilization's advancements are ultimately achieved.
Mathematics is commonly seen as being about numbers and calculations (such as simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions and such). In its simplest form, it is easily learned by children, who are often taught by their parents. Such counting and equations are of great importance in everyday life, in any number of ways, such as accounting, or telling time, etc. However, true mathematicians engage in the study of far more complex equations, without which none of the other branches of science would be possible. In fact there are many jobs not generally considered scientific which would also be impossible without math. Such fields as physics, chemistry, and engineering are advanced as new mathematical theories are proven; and in turn, the more advanced those sciences become, the more it is realized that still more advanced mathematics must be theorized.
Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, including such aspects as temperature, water vapor, and air pressure. As yet this field has little in the way of practical applications, though it is most commonly associated with the prediction of weather. (Such predictions are famous for often being either wrong, or obvious. However, they also often prove useful, as they can sometimes be both right, and counter-intuitive.) One of the earliest scientific breakthroughs leading to the creation of this branch of science was the development of thermometers in 201.
Physics is the study of how matter moves through both space and time, and its relation to energy and force. These studies rely heavily upon mathematics, and the understanding of physics is itself crucial to other sciences such as chemistry, astronomy, and engineering.
While this term can be applied to the owner of a company which makes and sells any of various forms of alcohol, it is more properly applied to the people who do the actual work of producing the alcohol. (They may also make vinegar or soft drinks.) This includes brewers (who make beer and lambics), distillers (who make various liquors), and vintners (who make various wines). Technically, the term "spirit" should only be applied to liquor, or at least that is the practice on Earth; on the Land, this distinction is generally not made, and all alcoholic beverages are referred to as "spirits." The methods of producing various spirits have been employed since the first century, and are some of the earliest known applications of fields which would later come to be known by terms such as "chemistry" and "botany." In modern times it may seem strange to categorize spirit-makers as "scientists," and in fact it isn't so much the people who do the job that are considered scientists, as it is the job itself that is called science. Because of course, just because a certain amount of time has passed since an application of science was discovered, doesn't mean that it ceases to be science.
This is not generally considered a specific branch of science, and in fact in some cases may not be considered science at all. The word "theorist" is sometimes used interchangeably with "philosopher," though the latter is less likely to find actual employment, unless they can convince a publisher to put out a book of their musings which might, theoretically, be of interest to the average reader. However, philosophy merely refers to thinking about the nature of life, the world, and... everything. Wondering how things work. This is what originally led to all branches of science, and it is what will, in some form, always drive all scientific thought, research, and discovery. Nevertheless, the word "philosophy," since the development of more refined scientific methods of research, has largely come to refer to the pondering of more abstract, rather than practical questions, such as the reason for existence, reasons for emotions, how people interact with each other and with spirits such as God. Mankind's place in the universe. Things which are more properly the province of spirit-talkers, artists, and psychotherapists.
This modern interpretation of philosophy is also sometimes referred to as "metaphysics," a term which many scientists use to suggest that it is separate from true science. However, they cannot forget the importance that the original definition of philosophy once held, and have now come to use the term "theorist" to refer to thinkers who attempt to advance the boundaries of knowledge in any of various scientific fields, including physics, astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, engineering... just about any field, actually. Of course, the postulating of new theories is an essential part of any branch of science, but not all scientists are considered theorists, in spite of this. On one level, it's because not all scientists are as deeply interested in advancing knowledge as in maintaining it, and utilizing what is already known in various practical ways. On another level, even those who are engaged in advancing immediate knowledge may not make the kind of logical leaps that true theorists make. In fact, this means that even if their theories happen to be right, there will be neither a means of proving it nor of benefiting from it for the foreseeable future, which means that theorists generally cannot find practical work, and are most likely to be employed by universities as masters... and the courses they teach are often (erroneously) labeled "philosophy." (It has been noted by some as ironic that the field of metaphysics itself will likely, in the distant future, become a genuine field of scientific study, once more traditional physics catches up.)
Zoology is the branch of biology which deals with the study of animals, both their physiology and habits, such as where they live, what they eat, how they interact with each other, how they reproduce, etc.